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Advanced Control

If you are a process or instrument engineer, then you have definitely have passed some courses on process control during university time. To be honest, with all due respect, none of them was practical and unfortunately none of them is implemented when it comes to petrochemical, gas processing, refinery plants or generally process plant. Nonetheless, the course was needed to get you familiar with simple basics. You might think that we have written this in order to persuade you to purchase the package; simply don’t buy it.



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Advanced Control

Who should take this course?

1. Process engineers

2. Chemical engineers

3. Control room operators

3. Instrument engineers

4. Control system engineers

Who should take this course?

1. Process engineers

2. Chemical engineers

3. Control room operators

3. Instrument engineers

4. Control system engineers

Simple Control Loop

Session 1: Introductory session

In this session the presenter provides the instruction on basics of process control which are need for next sessions. The following subjects are discussed with pragmatic approach:

– The definition of process value, set pint, measured value and how a controller functions.

– How a controller is shown in FCS-Faceplate- and how different parameters such as manual mode, auto mode, logic and tuning, could be manipulated by control room operators.

– The definition of BK, BKIN, BKINERR, PVERR, BKOUT, BKOUTERR, direct, indirect and ramp for controllers

– An overview of tuning parameters like PB, TD, and TI and their common values which is recommended to be used during start-ups and normal operation are provided.

– An overview of different types of process controllers namely, simple control loop, split-range control, cascade control, override, and complex loops is provided.

Session 2: Flow controlling loops [FIC]

Different practical examples from previous projects are provided in a way that not only familiarize learners with process itself but also make them absorb the concept of FIC loops easily. Only in this way learners can truly understand how to use and where to use FIC from the bottom of their heart.

The instructor provides two comprehensive and practical examples, the first of which being controlling water flow over a packed column. Alongside the example the presenter provides the learners with some design notes over flowmeter selection and their locations in control loops; more importantly, he introduces a systematic approach for selection of control system. In second example, he goes over protection steam flow control which is used alongside oxygen for ATRs in hydrogen-related plants and shows how the process and assumption can impact control type selection.

Session 3: Pressure controlling loops [PIC]

In this session, you will learn the followings:

– Inlet Knock-out drum pressure control.

– When pressure control and when flow control should be used for heat exchangers. The presenter provides his experience-thermodynamics and start-ups- over the matter, which one to select, why and how to present the control loop in P&ID. To help the learners better understand the concept he alludes to distillation column reboilers and oxygen preheaters.

– In forth example, he explains what steam headers are and why import steam control just needs a simple pressure control loop.

– In last example, he elucidates the process of pressure control in fired heaters. The instructor at first gives information about different components of a fired heater in brief, then explains why drought pressure should be kept within specific limit. Additionally, he explains how inlet guide vane works and how it can impact pressure control.

Session 4: Level controlling loops [LIC]

In this session the instructor provides two comprehensive examples, through which you will learn:

– Which type of control system is used for a vertical separator which is located at the suction of a centrifugal compressor.

– Which type of control system is used for a horizontal separator whose function is to provide enough surface area so that the dissolved gas could simply escape. In addition, the instructor alludes to the pressure control of the drum which have been given as homework to design.

– Due to importance of the separators, he introduces two-out-of-three voting system; he goes through IEC-61511 to show why such voting system should be implemented and how it could be shown on P&IDs and ESDs. Finally, he uses such configuration for the separators and illustrates how it is displayed on the P&ID for the examples.

– He also brings up the examples of reboiler and oxygen pre-heater. He shows why a simple level control is enough for drums whose function is to hold-up steam condensate coming out of the reboiler and oxygen preheater.

Session 5: Temperature controlling loops [TIC]

In this session, the following examples will be discussed:

– Temperature control at the inlet of a reactor

– Temperature control of lube oil used in turbine console

– Temperature control of steam headers using BFW as quench water.

Split-range Control

Session 1: Introduction

He starts the session with a practical and actual example and shows why a simple level control is not suitable for such applications and is meaningless if applied. Then he introduces split-range control and how it can help the separator to keep its level within the range. Additionally, he elucidates the functions of low and high selectors. Afterwords, he compares the opening of split-range control valves against Master LIC output in a plot. Finally, he instructs how split-range control could be shown on P&ID.

Session 2: Split-range for combined FICs and LICs

In this session he provides two thorough examples in which you will learn the followings:

– Split range for flow control of washing water for a trayed separator and split range control for level control of a separator. Since both separators interacts with each other, their control system collides with each other; the presenter adroitly shows how a low selector can solve our problem; but why not high selector? He goes through two scenarios and shows why high selector is not suitable.

– In second example he shows how start-up and off-conditions can impact control system. He then emphasizes that the process control specialist should be really experienced to take into account all conditions and translate them with a advanced control language. The process stated in the example is about steam drum, evaporator, and deaerator.

Session 3: Split-range for deaerator pressure control

In this session the presenter explains the process of deaeration and the purpose of the deaerator; then he tries to design a control system for deaerator pressure. To do so he explains how the DMW temperature and LPS pressure both can impact the deaerator pressure; as a result, he concludes that implementing a simple control is meaningless and only split-range control should be used. Additionally, he explains how plot showing control valve opening against PIC output could be drawn. Afterwards to complete his control system, he introduces the concept of override and how implementation of such system could be beneficial.

For the second example, then he moves to reflux drum pressure control system and split range could be the solution.

Finally, he ends the session with steam header which prevalent in approximately all process plants. In this wonderful example, instead of designing control system for pressure control of each header, he elaborates on two practical approaches towards two different steam headers pressure control. He goes through each approach and reveals why such approach has been taken; in every moment he grabs the opportunity to connect process to advanced control and address the Why and Why not questions. Through this example and deaerator, the learners gain deep understanding of the controller being direct or reverse.

Cascade Control

Session 1: Introductory session

In this introductory session, the presenter provides BFW headers pressure control as an example, during which he shows why simple pressure control cannot be suitable for such applications. Then he introduces cascade control and explains what a cascade controller is, why and how it should be used, and which configuration should be applied. Finally, he applies the cascade for the example.

Session 2: LIC-FIC cascade control

In second session to help the learners obtain deep understanding of cascade controllers, he provides cascade control of reflux drum level and reflux flow assembly as an example. He starts with simple level control but provides the reasons why such controller is not suitable. He alludes to process consequences if simple control loop is applied and show how cascade control can resolve all issues. Finally, he proposes the right cascade configuration for the application.

Session 3: Combined cascade and split-range

To show how sometimes complex it might become, the instructor provides the learners with a comprehensive example, in which you will learn the followings:

1. TIC-FIC cascade control

2. FIC split range control

3. LIC split range control

4. Combination of above item and their interactions.

FY, LY, PY Calculators

You will see a lot of them on P&ID and complex loop documents!

Session 1: Distillation column inlet control

In this session the presenter shows what these calculation blocks are and why you should not fear them! In order that you can gain complete insight towards the matter, he gives distillation column inlet feed control as an example. You will learn:

– Switching system when we have two controllers which can control one parameter.

How three-element calculation block works and determines setpoint for FIC controlling inlet feed.

Answer the following questions to help you take the course or not.

1. Do you know where to implement split-range control and how to design (not read) it for process applications?

2. Do you where to implement cascade control and how to design (not read) it for process applications?

3. Do you know how those control loops that you see on the P&ID are implemented in FCS?

4. Do you know about the values for tunning parameters of a FIC, PIC, or LIC controllers?

5. Have you had the experience to observe the behavior of controllers in actual turbulences?

6. Do you know about some parameters of controllers such as indirect or direct and how it impacts your control loops design?


Be honest with yourself and for each question give yourself a score out of 10. If the sum is less than 30, then take the course; if the score is between 30 to 50, consult with us. If it is more than 50, we think you don’t need to take it.

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